构造器模式

目的

构造器 Builder 是一个构建复杂对象元件的接口。

有时,如果构造器对它所构建的东西有更好的了解,这个接口也可以是一个拥有默认方法的抽象类(也就是适配器)。

如果你的对象有一个复杂的继承树,那么,从逻辑上讲,构造器也对应有一个复杂的继承树。

注:构造器通常提供一个流式接口,参见 PHPUnit 的模拟构造器为例。

使用场景

  • PHPUnit 模拟构造器

UML 类图

构造器模式类图

代码

Director.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder;

use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Vehicle;

/**
* Director is part of the builder pattern. It knows the interface of the builder
* and builds a complex object with the help of the builder
*
* You can also inject many builders instead of one to build more complex objects
*/
class Director
{
public function build(Builder $builder): Vehicle
{
$builder->createVehicle();
$builder->addDoors();
$builder->addEngine();
$builder->addWheel();

return $builder->getVehicle();
}
}

Builder.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder;

use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Vehicle;

interface Builder
{
public function createVehicle();

public function addWheel();

public function addEngine();

public function addDoors();

public function getVehicle(): Vehicle;
}

TruckBuilder.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder;

use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Door;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Engine;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Wheel;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Truck;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Vehicle;

class TruckBuilder implements Builder
{
private Truck $truck;

public function addDoors()
{
$this->truck->setPart('rightDoor', new Door());
$this->truck->setPart('leftDoor', new Door());
}

public function addEngine()
{
$this->truck->setPart('truckEngine', new Engine());
}

public function addWheel()
{
$this->truck->setPart('wheel1', new Wheel());
$this->truck->setPart('wheel2', new Wheel());
$this->truck->setPart('wheel3', new Wheel());
$this->truck->setPart('wheel4', new Wheel());
$this->truck->setPart('wheel5', new Wheel());
$this->truck->setPart('wheel6', new Wheel());
}

public function createVehicle()
{
$this->truck = new Truck();
}

public function getVehicle(): Vehicle
{
return $this->truck;
}
}

CarBuilder.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder;

use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Door;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Engine;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Wheel;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Car;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Vehicle;

class CarBuilder implements Builder
{
private Car $car;

public function addDoors()
{
$this->car->setPart('rightDoor', new Door());
$this->car->setPart('leftDoor', new Door());
$this->car->setPart('trunkLid', new Door());
}

public function addEngine()
{
$this->car->setPart('engine', new Engine());
}

public function addWheel()
{
$this->car->setPart('wheelLF', new Wheel());
$this->car->setPart('wheelRF', new Wheel());
$this->car->setPart('wheelLR', new Wheel());
$this->car->setPart('wheelRR', new Wheel());
}

public function createVehicle()
{
$this->car = new Car();
}

public function getVehicle(): Vehicle
{
return $this->car;
}
}

Parts/Vehicle.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

abstract class Vehicle
{
/**
* @var object[]
*/
private array $data = [];

public function setPart(string $key, object $value)
{
$this->data[$key] = $value;
}
}

Parts/Truck.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

class Truck extends Vehicle
{
}

Parts/Car.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

class Car extends Vehicle
{
}

Parts/Engine.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

class Engine
{
}

Parts/Wheel.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

class Wheel
{
}

Parts/Door.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts;

class Door
{
}

测试

Tests/DirectorTest.php

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<?php declare(strict_types = 1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Car;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Parts\Truck;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\TruckBuilder;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\CarBuilder;
use DesignPatterns\Creational\Builder\Director;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class DirectorTest extends TestCase
{
public function testCanBuildTruck()
{
$truckBuilder = new TruckBuilder();
$newVehicle = (new Director())->build($truckBuilder);

$this->assertInstanceOf(Truck::class, $newVehicle);
}

public function testCanBuildCar()
{
$carBuilder = new CarBuilder();
$newVehicle = (new Director())->build($carBuilder);

$this->assertInstanceOf(Car::class, $newVehicle);
}
}